Kinds or types of intravenous office cleaning fluids and their role: 1. hypotonic fluid. Fluid administered is lower than serum osmolarity (Na + ion concentration lower than serum), so late in the serum, and lower serum osmolarity. Then fluid "pulled" out of the blood vessels into surrounding tissues (the principle of fluid move from low to high osmolarity osmolarity), until eventually fill the target cells. Used in cell state "experience" dehydration, for example in dialysis patients (dialysis) in diuretic therapy, also in patients with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels) with diabetic ketoacidosis. Threatening complication is sudden displacement of fluid from the blood vessels into cells, causing cardiovascular collapse and increased intracranial pressure (in the brain) in some people. An example is the 45% NaCl and 2.5% Dextrose. 2. Isotonic liquid. Is fluid administered office cleaning osmolarity (density) of fluid approach serum (the liquid part of blood components), thus persist in the blood vessels. Helpful in patients with hipovolemi (lack of body fluids, so the blood pressure continues office cleaning to decline). Have a risk of overload (excess fluid), particularly in disease congestive heart failure and hypertension. Examples are liquid-Ringer Lactate (RL), and normal saline / saline (0.9% NaCl). 3. hypertonic fluid. Intravenous fluid osmolarity is higher than the serum, so the "pull" of fluid and electrolytes from the cells into the tissue and blood vessels. Able to stabilize blood pressure, increases the production of urine, and reduce edema (swelling). Its use is contradictory with hypotonic fluid. For example Dextrose 5%, 45% hypertonic office cleaning saline, Dextrose 5% + Ringer-Lactate, Dextrose 5% NaCl + 0.9%, blood products (blood), and albumin. Another liquid division is based on the group: 1. Crystalloids: is isotonic, it is effective in filling a liquid volume (volume expanders) into the blood vessels office cleaning in a short time, and is useful in patients who require immediate fluid. For example Ringer-Lactate and physiological saline. 2. Colloid: their molecular office cleaning size (usually a protein) is large enough so it will not come out of the capillary membrane, and remain in the blood vessels, then its hypertonic, and can draw fluid from outside the blood vessel. Examples are albumin office cleaning and steroids. Fluids used in fluid therapy is often used is a liquid electrolyte (crystalloid) non-electrolyte office cleaning liquid, and colloidal liquids. Electrolyte fluid (crystalloid): In accordance with its use can be divided into several groups, namely for maintenance, replacement and specific objectives. Fluid maintenance (maintenance): The aim is to replace body water loss through urine, feces, lungs and sweat. Total body water loss is different according to age, namely: Adult: 1.5 to 2 ml / kg / hour Children: 2-4 ml / kg / hr Babies: 4-6 ml / kg / hr Orok (neonates) : 3 ml / kg / h Given the fluid lost in this way very few contain electrolytes, then as a replacement fluid is hypotonic, with particular attention to sodium. Crystalloid solution for maintenance eg 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl (D5NaCl office cleaning 0.45). Liquid dosage Maintenance (maintenance) office cleaning Fluid replacement: The goal is to replace body water loss caused by sequestration or other pathological processes (eg fistula, pleural effusion, ascites gastric drainage etc.). As a replacement fluid used for this purpose isotonic fluid, with special attention to the concentration of sodium, for example, 5% dextrose in Ringer's lactate (D5RL), 0.9% NaCl, NaCl D5. Substitute Liquid Liquid office cleaning preparations for special office cleaning purposes (correction): The definition is specifically used crystalloid fluid, for example sodium bicarbonate 7.5%, 3% NaCl, etc. Correction Fluid Liquid preparations non electrolytes: Example dextrose 5%, 10%, is used to meet the needs of water and calories, can also be used as maintenance fluid. Colloids: Also referred to as plasma expanders, because office cleaning it has a great ability in maintaining intra-vascular volume. Examples of these fluids include: Dextran, Haemacel, Albumin, Plasma, Blood. The colloid fluids are used to replace lost fluids intra-vascular.